Contact Information:
Kathleen Pryer
Department of Biology
Duke University
Durham, NC 27707-0338
Telephone: 919-660-7380


Tzu-Tong Kao (高資棟), Ph.D. candidate

Room 348, Biological Science Building
Box 90338, Duke University, Durham NC, 27708
I have broad interest in plant systematics, anatomy, and microscopy.
My research is focused on: (1) evolution and function of farina (waxy flavonoid exudates) in Pteridaceae, with special focus on notholaenids, a desiccation-tolerant new world clade; (2) evolution and function of epidermal idioblasts (silica cells) in Pteridaceae; (3) the reproductive biology of ferns and the anatomical structure of the reproductive organs.

Education & Works

Duke University, Biology, Ph.D. student, 2013 – present
Taiwan Forest Research Institute, assistant, 2011-2013
Taiwan Society of Plant Systematics, assistant, 2010-2013
National Taiwan University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, M. Sc., 2009
National Taiwan University, Life Science, B. Sc., 2007
Kuo, L.-Y., Y.-H. Chang, J.M.O. Glowienka, V.B. Amoroso, S.-Y. Dong, T.-T. Kao, C.-N. Wang, & W.-L. Chiou. 2016. A revised framework of Dryopteris subg. Nothoperanema (Dryopteridaceae) inferred from phylogenetic evidence, with descriptions of two new sections. Systematic Botany 41(3): 596–605.
Kao, T.-T., K.M. Pryer, M.D. Turner, R.A. White, & P. Korall. 2015. Origins of the endemic scaly tree ferns on the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. International Journal of Plant Sciences 176(9): 869–879. Reprint PDF
Huang, Y.-M., V.B. Amoroso, F.P. Coritico, C.-W. Ko, T.-T. Kao, J.R. Callado, & W.-L. Chiou. 2015. Reproductive biology of Aglaomorpha cornucopia (Copel.) M.C. Roos, a rare and endemic fern from the Philippines. American Fern Journal 105(1): 31–44.
Kao, T.-T., W.-L. Chiou, S.-Y. Hsu, C.-M. Chen, Y.-S. Chao, Y.-M. Haung. 2014. Hybrid origin of Nephrolepis xhippocrepicis Miyam. (Nephrolepidaceae). International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology 6(1): 1–14.
Moore, S.-J., B.S. Parris, T.-T. Kao, P.-F. Lu, and W.-L. Chiou. 2013. Xiphopterella devolii (Polypodiaceae), a new species and newly recorded genus in Taiwan. Botanical Studies 54: 24.
Kao, T.-T., S.-J. Chen, W.-L. Chiou, and L.-L. Kuo-Huang. 2008. Various microscopic methods for investigating the venuloid idioblasts of Pteris grevilleana Wall. Taiwania 53(4): 394–400.
Master thesis
Kao, T.-T. 2009. A study of false veins and silica deposition types on fronds in Pteridaceae. Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University.
黃曜謀、邱文良、陳俊銘、高資棟。2013。台北植物園區馬蹄腎蕨的研究與發現。林業研究專訊,20(3): 53-55.
    • tzu tong kao
    • Notholaena californica
    • infected cyathea
    • crepidomanes false vein
    • actiniopteris false vein
    • antheridia
    • ceratopteris spore
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